- What conditions are in effect? a fortiori
- What comes first? a priori – in time or causation.
- What happened immediately before and after X? causation – a posteriori
- did _ cause _? modus ponens/modus tollens
- If _ is true, what cannot be true? contradiction (square of opposition)
- Are _ and _ mutually exclusive, or can they coexist? contrariety (square of opposition)
- What were/would be the effects if the choice is affirmative?
- What were/would be the effects if the choice is negative
- Final Cause
- Efficient Cause
- Sufficient and Necessary Cause
- The knowable and unknowable — aporia
The laws of reason bound the possibilities of inference.
The activities of human reason:
- Simple Apprehension – Term
- sense perception – perception
- image – imagination
- abstraction – intuition
- Judgement – Proposition
- a connection of abstractions
- logical relationship of ideas
- truth or falsehood
- Inference – Conclusion
- deductive – universal
- inductive – particular
Formal Logic provides validity of an argument (terms, propositions and conclusions) as to their proper connection.
Material Logic examines the content of terms.