Quintilian recognizes four classes of Metaphor:

  1. Substituting one living thing for another.
    1. Rational to Irrational
    2. Irrational to Rational
    3. Rational to Rational
    4. Irrational to Irrational
  2. Inanimate substituted for Inanimate.
  3. Inanimate for Animate
  4. Animate for Inanimate

“He is a lion”

“The silver pen traced streams of white in the blue sky.”

“The American tide swept all before it.”

“Araxes’ flood that scorns a bridge.”