Referring to all of language and its relationship to ideas we would use the term General Grammar.
Referring to a specific language and the way it relates to ideas we would use the term Special Grammar. Learning a language then is the study of a Special Grammar.
Regarding General Grammar then, we understand that all languages must accomplish certain ways, one in according to the description of ‘what is’ (ta ontos) and the other according to what is said (ta legomena).
Further, within a language, words, representing ideas, do so in the following ways:
- Categoregmatic. These words symbolize a concept concerned with a way of being. This is described in the Categories of Aristotle.
- They can be Substantive, which primarily symbolize substance.
- They can be Attributive, which assign an accident to a substance.
- Syncategoregmatic. These words only acquire meaning in combination with other words. They exist in purely grammatical ways, holding strings of meaning together.
- They may be Definitive, denoting a particular.
- They may be Connective, for example joining subject and predicate.