Category: Omnibus Studies
Herodotus is known as the original Historian, attempting to relate causes in the aftermath of the victory and ascendence of the Athenians over the Persian Empire and the Aegean sea.
The History, a work of the ancient world, is remarkable for its scope, naturalistic explanations, and multiple viewpoints. Herodotus is known as the original Historian, attempting to relate causes in the aftermath of the victory and ascendence of the Athenians over the Persian Empire and the Aegean sea.
We read of the Greco/Persian War here, and the entire book is written as an explanation of historical events that led to that point.
Herodotus concerns himself with the origin of the conflict between Persia and Greece which began with King Croessus of Lydia, who was overcome by the Persian king Cyrus. Meanwhile, in Athens a democracy forms against the rise of Pisistratus, and in Sparta a strict order of state gathers control of the Peloponnesus. Cyrus, who overcomes the Medes and Scythia/Cimmeria alliance that overthrew the Assyrian Empire, captures Babylon and campaigns in Scythia against the Massagetae, where he is killed in battle.
Cambyses comes to power and plans to enlarge the Persian empire in Egypt. Herodotus provides a description of Egyptian history, customs and geography.
Cambyses defeats the son of Amasis in Egypt, continuing his campaign of conquest against the Ethiopians and Ammon. He loses a large army in the desert west of Egypt, and goes mad in Egypt where he kills his brother and leaves Persia in confusion under the rule of the Magi (false Smerdis) at his death. The Spartans interfere with the Island of Samos under Polycrates. Herodotus, following the adventures of Darius who overthrows the Magi, meditates on the far east (India). Darius, now firmly in command, conquers and subdues Samos, and reconquers Babylon which had revolted in the Persian chaotic interregnum.
Darius begins an attack on the Scythians to the north of the Black Sea. Herodotus explains the history of the Scythians, and speculates on Geography. Darius, forced to retreat from Scythia, leaves his general Megabazus in Thrace, while he campaigns in Libya and against Cyrene.
While Megabazus subdues Thrace, a revolt, lead by Aristagoras breaks out against Otanes in Ionia. Aristagoras seeks aid first from Cleomenes in Sparta (refused), and then in Athens. Athens sends ships to aid the Ionians in their failed insurrection, angering Darius against the Athenians.
Securing the Chersonese (Hellespont), the Persians gather the Greek cities and the Island of Aegina preparing for an assault on Athens. Darius places Datis and Artaphernes in command, bringing Hippias back to reassume control of Athens. Miltiades at the command of an Athenian and Plataean army routes the Persians at Marathon.
Darius’ death means he will never get his vengeance against the Greeks. Xerxes, succeeding to the throne, organizes a massive campaign against his father’s enemies. The Persians face a naval disaster at Sepias, and march through Thrace and Macedon to face king Leonidas of the Spartans in the Battle of Thermopylae.
Beginning with the naval battle of Artemisium, the Greeks retreat toward Athens, deciding between the Isthmus (Corinth) and the bay of Salamis. The battle of Salamis results in a defeat for Xerxes. Alexander of Macedon is sent by the Persian king to bargain for the surrender of Athens, and we read of the heritage of Alexander the Great.
The finale of Herodotus is mostly concerned with Mardonius (the Persian general) and the Battle of Plataea (1st battle). The Persians are defeated and also driven from the Chersonese.
A list of books follows by dates. This will be added to periodically to allow a more comprehensive inclusion of texts for the purpose of Omnibus curriculum. Aeon Timeline Export…
A list of books follows by dates. This will be added to periodically to allow a more comprehensive inclusion of texts for the purpose of Omnibus curriculum.
Aeon Timeline Export
|Date||Event Title||End Date||Duration||Tags|
|2145 BC||Composition of Job||1799 BC||346 Years|
|2100 BC||Epic of Gilgamesh||2100 BC||0 Years||Gilgamesh,Uruk,nineveh,Akkadian,Sumerian|
|Twelve tablets — found in many sites from Uruk to Babylon – a common story of Mesopotamia
Some recovered in the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh
|1850 BC||Enuma Elish||1749 BC||101 Years||nineveh,Tiamat,Marduk,Apsu|
|The earth from the ‘abyss’ (Apsu)|
|1840 BC||Epic of Gilgamesh (c)||1739 BC||101 Years||Akkadian,Myth,Uruk|
|Compiled from Sumerian legends – Sumerian sources have been found – the complete epic is in Akkadian|
|1754 BC||Code of Hammurabi||1754 BC||0 Years||Babylon,Hammurabi,Akkadian,Law,Marduk|
|1700 BC||Egyptian Book of the Dead||1700 BC||0 Years||Books,Egypt|
|1430 BC||The Pentateuch||1399 BC||31 Years||Moses|
|The Five Scrolls|
|1020 BC||Psalms||949 BC||71 Years|
|1016 BC||The Iliad||907 BC||109 Years||Homer,Poetry,Myth|
|1000 BC||The Odyssey||849 BC||151 Years||Greek,Myth,Homer,Poetry|
|970 BC||Proverbs||929 BC||41 Years|
|459 BC||Premier of the Oresteia||459 BC||0 Years||Drama|
|Play concerning the aftermath of the curse of the house of Atreus – Aeschylus|
|450 BC||Herodotus Histories||439 BC||11 Years||History,Persia,Greek|
|440 BC||The Theban Plays||408 BC||32 Years|
|423 BC||‘The Clouds’ Premier||423 BC||0 Years||Drama,Comedy,Greek|
|Aristophanes mockery of fashionable philosophizing|
|420 BC||Thucydides Pelopponesian War||412 BC||8 Years||Peloponnesian War,Persia,Greek|
|401 BC||Oedipus at Colonus||401 BC||0 Years||Greek,Sophocles,Theban|
|390 BC||Last Days of Socrates||379 BC||11 Years||Plato,Greek|
|Plato recounts the trial of Socrates|
|380 BC||Anabasis||380 BC||0 Years||Persia,Xenophon,Sparta|
|364 BC||Hellenika of Xenophon||354 BC||10 Years||Xenophon,Persia,Sparta,Athens|
|360 BC||The Republic||360 BC||0 Years||Socrates,Plato,Greek|
|346 BC||The Organon||346 BC||0 Years||Logic|
|80 BC||Ad Herrenium||80 BC||0 Years||Rome,Rhetoric,Books|
|Once attributed to Cicero – oldest surviving Roman book on Rhetoric|
|70 BC||Works of Cicero||42 BC||28 Years||Rome,Roman Emperor,Law|
|70 BC||De Rerum Natura||49 BC||21 Years||Poetry,Rome,Roman Emperor,Epicureanism|
|29 BC||Aeneid||18 BC||11 Years||Poetry,Rome,Roman Emperor,Augustus|
|Epic poem of the founding of Rome. Virgil|
|25 BC||Ab urbe condita||5 BC||20 Years||History,Rome|
|History of Rome by Livy|
|58 AD||Apostolic Fathers||169 AD||111 Years|
|75 AD||The Jewish War||77 AD||2 Years||josephus|
|95 AD||Jewish Antiquities||95 AD||0 Years|
|109 AD||The Annals||121 AD||12 Years||Rome,Roman Emperor,History|
|Tacitus chronicles paranoia amongst the Emperors, and the crucifixion of Christ|
|115 AD||The Lives of the Twelve Caesars||131 AD||16 Years||Rome,History,Roman Emperor|
|Suetonius’ highly critical work of the lives of the first twelve Caesars.|
|190 AD||Plutarch’s Parallel Lives||190 AD||0 Years||Greek,Books|
|240 AD||Composition of the Hexapla||251 AD||11 Years||Bible,Alexandria,Origen,Caesarea|
|5 translation interlinear work|
|326 AD||Eusebius Ecclesiastical History||326 AD||0 Years||Eusebius|
|355 AD||Ad Constantium Augustum liber primus||355 AD||0 Years||Hilary,Constantius,Arian|
|Writing to the emperor against the persecutions of Valens, and the rising Arianism
Hillary of Poitiers
|368 AD||On the Incarnation of our Lord||368 AD||0 Years||Alexandria,Athanasius|
|396 AD||Confessions of Augustine||396 AD||0 Years||Manicheanism,platonism|
|World’s first Autobiography|
|400 AD||Jerome Translates the Vulgate||419 AD||19 Years||Bible|
|413 AD||City of God||427 AD||14 Years||Arian|
|523 AD||De Consolatione Philosophae||525 AD||2 Years||Boethius|
|530 AD||The Rule of Saint Benedict||530 AD||0 Years||Benedictine,monasticism,Italy|
|546 AD||On the Destruction of Britain||546 AD||0 Years||Book,History,Arthur,Briton,Anglo-Saxon|
|St. Gildas, Welsh monk on early Arthurian tales.|
|580 AD||Decem Libri Historiarum||591 AD||11 Years||Franks,Nicene,Arian,Visigoth|
|Gregory of Tours|
|623 AD||Etymology||631 AD||8 Years||Isidore of Seville,Seville,epitome|
|650 AD||Beowulf -Caedmon||650 AD||0 Years||Norse,Anglo-Saxon|
|690 AD||Development of the Koran||1001 AD||311 Years||Islam,Muhammed,Umayyad,Caliph’,Othman|
|New York Times
|731 AD||Ecclesiastical History of the English People||731 AD||0 Years||England,Bede,Books,History|
|750 AD||The Elder Edda||1101 AD||351 Years||Norse,Poet,Burgundy|
|809 AD||Life of Charles the Great||809 AD||0 Years||Charlemagne,Carolingian,monasticism|
|Two lives of Charlemagne
|910 AD||The Greek Anthology||910 AD||0 Years||Books|
|A digest of quotes, poetry, inscriptions: Christian and classical.|
|976 AD||The Suda||976 AD||0 Years||Encyclopedia,Book,Byzantium|
|1000 AD||Völsunga Saga||1251 AD||251 Years||Franks,Burgundy,Norse|
|Developed from an oral tradition concerning the downfall of the Burgundians – Icelandic prose in written form|
|1025 AD||Micrologus of Guido d’Arezzo||1025 AD||0 Years||music|
|Development of ‘ut re mi fa sol’ Western music theory and polyphony|
|1040 AD||Song of Roland||1116 AD||76 Years||Charlemagne,Roland,Islam,Franks,|
|Chanson du Geste|
|1080 AD||Domesday Book||1080 AD||0 Years|
|Survey of England by William the Conquerer|
|1095 AD||Proslogion of Anselm||1095 AD||0 Years||Logic,Ontology|
|1114 AD||Sic et Non||1114 AD||0 Years||Abélard|
|1125 AD||Chronicle of the Kings||1125 AD||0 Years||Malmsebury,England,History|
|1137 AD||Geoffrey of Monmouth: Historia Britonum||1137 AD||0 Years|
|1139 AD||The Goliardic Poets||1227 AD||88 Years||music|
|Includes the famous ‘Carmina Burana’|
|1140 AD||The Alexiad||1140 AD||0 Years||crusades,Constantinople,Byzantium|
|1150 AD||Das Nibelungenlied||1150 AD||0 Years||Huns,Merovingian,Brunhilda,Germany|
|1155 AD||Libri Quattorum Sententiae||1155 AD||0 Years||University of Paris,Notre Dame|
|Text and Commentary
|1187 AD||Topographia Hibernica||1187 AD||0 Years|
|Gerald of Wales|
|1265 AD||Summa Theologiae||1275 AD||10 Years||monasticism,Paris,University of Paris,Aquinas|
|1276 AD||Lives of Thomas Becket||1276 AD||0 Years||John of Salisbury,England,History|
|Compilation of contemporary biographers|
|1309 AD||The Divine Comedy||1321 AD||12 Years||Italian City States,Italy|
|1353 AD||Decameron||1353 AD||0 Years||Italy,Italian City States,Poetry|
|1356 AD||Sir Gawain and the Green Knight||1391 AD||35 Years||England,Arthur,Chivalry|
|1389 AD||The Canterbury Tales||1389 AD||0 Years||England,monasticism,Relics|
|1485 AD||Le Morte d’Arthur||1485 AD||0 Years||Arthur,England,Carolingian,Norman,Franks|
|1509 AD||The Praise of Folly||1509 AD||0 Years|
|1512 AD||The Prince||1512 AD||0 Years||Italian City States,Italy|
|1525 AD||On the Bondage of the Will||1525 AD||0 Years||Luther,Germany,Predestination,Erasmus|
|Argument with Erasmus|
|1651 AD||Leviathan||1651 AD||0 Years||State,secularism,England,thirty years war|
|The idea of ‘the State’ — the secular|
|1667 AD||Paradise Lost||1667 AD||0 Years||Milton,Poetry,England|
|Original publication date|
|John Milton reading room
|1670 AD||Pensées||1670 AD||0 Years||France,Pascal|
|Assembled notes of Blaise Pascal — trinitarian response to the ‘credo ergo sum’.
The order of their printing is controversial.
|1719 AD||Robinson Crusoe||1719 AD||0 Years||Defoe,England,Novel,Omni VI|
|among the first of the novel form.|
|1776 AD||Wealth of Nations||1776 AD||0 Years||Economics,Money,Omni VI|
|Establishment of ‘Classical Economic Theory’
The medium of exchange and international trade.
|1800 AD||Origin and Principles of the American Revolution||1800 AD||0 Years||German,Revolution,Age of Reason,Enlightenment|
|Friedrich von Gentz – Translated by John Quincy Adams
Comparison with the French revolution
|1815 AD||Emma||1815 AD||0 Years||England,Austen|
|Jane Austen Novel of Manners|
|1835 AD||Democracy in America||1835 AD||0 Years||France,America,Revolution,Law|
|Alexis de Tocqueville impressions of self governance in America and comparison to French social system. Prophetic.|
|1850 AD||The Law (Bastiat)||1850 AD||0 Years||Economics,Law,France|
|works by Bastiat|
|1851 AD||Moby Dick||1851 AD||0 Years||Romanticism,American Literature,Novel|
|1864 AD||Notes from the Underground||1864 AD||0 Years||Russia,Revolution,Novel,World Literature,Existentialism|
|1885 AD||Huckleberry Finn||1885 AD||0 Years||American Literature,America,Novel,Slavery,Censorship|
|Mark Twain – controversial in contemporary life|
|1886 AD||Beyond Good and Evil||1886 AD||0 Years||Existentialism|
|Seminal work of modern response to nihilism. ‘God is Dead’. Nietzsche.|
|Gutenberg – English
|1926 AD||The Sun Also Rises||1926 AD||0 Years||Novel,Modernism,Revolution,Spain,World War|
|1929 AD||All Quiet on the Western Front||1929 AD||0 Years||France,Nihilism,Nationalism,World War,Novel,Germany|
|Remarque. Famous novel (and film (s))|
|1932 AD||Brave New World||1932 AD||0 Years||England,World Literature,Epicureanism,Modernism,Nihilism|
|Aldus Huxley vs. George Orwell. Bookends well with the ‘1984’ reading in Omni III.|
|1942 AD||The Stranger||1942 AD||0 Years||France,Novel,Existentialism,Nihilism,World War,World Literature|
|Landmark novel of the French Existential movement.|
|1962 AD||One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich||1962 AD||0 Years||Russia,Soviet,Modernism,Revolution|
|1988 AD||Battle Cry of Freedom||1988 AD||0 Years||America,Revolution|
History of America at the time of the Civil War
|1990 AD||I have a Dream and Letter from a Birmingham Jail||1990 AD||0 Years||America,Law,Slavery|
|Martin Luther King Jr. – civil rights|
|1995 AD||Portable Enlightenment Reader||1995 AD||0 Years||Enlightenment,Age of Reason|
|overview and excerpts. Kant, Locke, Rousseau, Franklin et. al.|
|1997 AD||Citizen Soldiers||1997 AD||0 Years||History,World War,America,Modernism|
world war II American experience
“The past is the present unrolled for inspection, the present is the past gathered for action.” -Will Durant
We read historians – our history of Western Civilization in particular draws its historiography from Herodotus as the original historian.
History of Western Civilization
That which hath been is now, and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past. Ecclesiastes 3:15
“The past is the present unrolled for inspection, the present is the past gathered for action.” -Will Durant
“History is the fruit and the proof of man’s freedom.” -Reinhold Niebuhr
Inferring a pattern to history that extends beyond sufficient causes, the theorist adduces a scheme. This is sometimes called ‘internal’ causes, referring to the free choices of man and the will of God. Examples –
- Moses (Genesis)
- St Augustine (The City of God)
- Thomas Hobbes
- Edward Gibbon (Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire)
- Leopold von Ranke — a peculiar example
- H. G. Wells
- Will Durant
- Arnold J. Toynbee (A Study of History)
- Oswald Spengler (The Decline of the West)
- J.M. Roberts (The Penguin History of the Word)
The Ancient Theory of History:
The gods make history, and man succeeds or falls in his relation to the gods. Most ancient theories of history pessimistically consider that doom of man, an eternal servant to the deity. There is a beginning, and for some and end.
The Classical Theory of History:
“Nothing happens in the universe if you consider the infinite time past” – Epicurus
“The Rational soul wanders around the whole world and through the encompassing void and gazes on infinite time and considers the periodic destructions and rebirths of the universe and reflects that our posterity will see nothing new and that our ancestors saw nothing that we have not seen” – Marcus Aurelius
We see a similarity in the view of history between the Epicurean and Stoic schools. Time is considered infinite, and therefore repetitive. The relation is necessary, as that which has no beginning cannot end, and cannot have a point of causation, but only intermediate causes.
Reinhold Neibuhr points out that Thucydides begins his history considering Athens to be a novelty in history (progressive), but ends his work resorting to basic classical historical pessimism. For the Greeks, natural causation becomes a focus and sufficient to explain efficient cause. The gods themselves are subject to history.
The Medieval Theory of History:
The Christianization of the West leads to an understanding of the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Man. The relation of these two historical forces and their patterns, as well as the position of time in its relation to the eschaton (end of the Kingdom of Man) becomes the focus of particular theories. Time is conceived as limited, having a beginning and end, which implies progress along a line. This concept, inherited from the Hebrew conception of prophecy and fulfillment leads to ‘progressivism’ as opposed to basic ‘pessimism’.
“Humility is as profitable to those who serve as pride is harmful to those who rule” — St. Augustine, City of God XIX:15
The Modern Theory of History:
The Modern Theory of History is fundamentally progressive, yet paradoxically resurrecting the idea of infinite time, this theory views human dynamism as producing the desired stasis of history. A theory of ‘Whig History’ sees the emergence and perfection of History as the very structure of history itself.
Hosea: “The Lord Saves” Hosea cannot bear to speak of judgement without speaking of redemption. For this reason, we think of Hosea as the prophet with the biggest heart….
Hosea: “The Lord Saves”
Hosea cannot bear to speak of judgement without speaking of redemption. For this reason, we think of Hosea as the prophet with the biggest heart.
Continuing a theme detected in Amos, Hosea expounds on the ripening evil of the Kingdom of Israel, and is commanded to take a harlot as his wife, to illustrate with his life amidst his countrymen the pain of estrangement that exists between God and his people.
We encounter the three children: Scattered, Unpitied, and Stranger.
In Chapters 1 and 2 we see fine examples of Chiasm, Chapter 3 clarifies and specifies the situation in Hosea’s immediate future.
The Chapters 4 through 10 are meditations on the events of Hosea’s day.
A series discussing the authenticity of the legend, history of the text and the tradition of the Homeric question.
A six part series broadcast on BBC in 1985
Episode 1: Age of Heroes
Episode 2: The Legend under Siege
Episode 3: The Singer of Tales – Homer
Episode 4: The Women of Troy
Episode 5: The Empire of the Hittites
Episode 6: The Fall of Troy
Early Iron Age 1300-500 BC Trojan War – Homer Philistine invasion – Samuel and Kings Fall of Israel/Judah Roman Kingdom – Livy Middle Iron Age 500-250 AD Greco/Persian War –…
- Early Iron Age
- 1300-500 BC
- Trojan War – Homer
- Philistine invasion – Samuel and Kings
- Fall of Israel/Judah
- Roman Kingdom – Livy
- Middle Iron Age
- Late Iron Age
- 250-500 AD
- Western/Eastern Roman Empire
- Fall of Rome
- Gothic Invasions
- Parthian Empire
A time period used for the scheduling of Reading Lists and the understanding of historical grammar. The period is broadly considered to be that time starting at the time of…
A time period used for the scheduling of Reading Lists and the understanding of historical grammar. The period is broadly considered to be that time starting at the time of the Church, and lasting until the New Heaven and Earth.
In more common use, the period can be described as the time between St. Augustine and Martin Luther theologically, Aurelius and Renee Descartes epistemologically, between the fall of Rome and the fall of Constantinople politically. The Medieval period occurs between the Ancient and Modern times.
The Medieval period is further divided into the early (400 – 1000 AD, high (1000 – 1200 AD, and late middle ages (1200 – 1500 AD) .
The Minor Prophets are only minor in their length. Considered in their transcendent number of ’12’, they are witnesses, like the apostles, in history short enough to be contained on one…
The Minor Prophets are only minor in their length. Considered in their transcendent number of ’12’, they are witnesses, like the apostles, in history short enough to be contained on one scroll. We have been thinking a lot about the Assyrian power, so here is a way of arranging the prophets by the Gentile powers under which they appeared:
1. Assyrian Period (9th through 7th century BC): Obadiah, Joel, Jonah, Hosea, Amos, (Isaiah), Micah, Nahum.
2. Babylonian Period: (612 through 549 BC): Zephaniah, (Jeremiah), Habakkuk, (Daniel), (Ezekiel)
3. Persian Period: (549 BC through 433 BC): Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
A ten book work, roughly tracing pursuit of the good, to happiness, to law. Find the book here. Reading Guides by Dan Snyder below: Reading guide ethics 1and2 Reading guide…
A ten book work, roughly tracing pursuit of the good, to happiness, to law.
Find the book here.
Reading Guides by Dan Snyder below: