Material reason provides the content for an argument or proposition, and may produce material fallacies
Sometimes referred to as ‘informal logic’, the content of terms and propositions.
According to the three activities of reason, the process of apprehension especially produces concerns of material logic.
The Ten Categories
The Five Predicables
Material Fallacies may arise by the mis-application of this art.
The study of Plato leads us to a contemplation of the forms. The Republic contemplates the possibility of virtue as well as politics and the afterlife. Gorgias makes us aware of rhetoric. Protagoras shows us a sophist and his politics, while the Symposium celebrates Love, the greatest of the Spiritual Virtues.
Student of Socrates and Philosopher of the Form, this idealist is famous for his dialogues. Writing in the context of late classical Greece, his Republic is a monument of Western Literature, and a demonstration of the form of good, the focus of idealism – later called realism in the middle ages. His successor, Aristotle, revolutionized epistemology with his ontological thinking on a wide range of topics.
Socrates, the center of Plato’s writing, engages in the dialectic, or elenchus, a predecessor of the syllogistic mode of formal logic.
Sample Proof I – Friday Week 8 A prospective particular supporting the main proposition as it exists at the moment, this supporting argument will be understood as an inductive proof…
Sample Proof I – Friday Week 8
A prospective particular supporting the main proposition as it exists at the moment, this supporting argument will be understood as an inductive proof or a deductive demonstration. It should draw on some of the stated research plan, and elevate interest in the Hypothesis. Reference to the research needed should be included in initial notes, here compiled as ‘end notes’ in the Chicago format.
Construct this proof using the rules of Stasis.
In Week 12 you will produce and hand in a Research Paper covering this proof.
What conditions are in effect? a fortiori What comes first? a priori – in time or causation. What happened immediately before and after X? causation – a posteriori did _…
- What conditions are in effect? a fortiori
- What comes first? a priori – in time or causation.
- What happened immediately before and after X? causation – a posteriori
- did _ cause _? modus ponens/modus tollens
- If _ is true, what cannot be true? contradiction (square of opposition)
- Are _ and _ mutually exclusive, or can they coexist? contrariety (square of opposition)
- What were/would be the effects if the choice is affirmative?
- What were/would be the effects if the choice is negative
- Final Cause
- Efficient Cause
- Sufficient and Necessary Cause
- The knowable and unknowable — aporia
The laws of reason bound the possibilities of inference.
The activities of human reason:
- Simple Apprehension – Term
- sense perception – perception
- image – imagination
- abstraction – intuition
- Judgement – Proposition
- a connection of abstractions
- logical relationship of ideas
- truth or falsehood
- Inference – Conclusion
- deductive – universal
- inductive – particular
Formal Logic provides validity of an argument (terms, propositions and conclusions) as to their proper connection.
Material Logic examines the content of terms.
The four Aristotelean causes were devised as a means of explaining the world. From this , an Aristotelean science, predecessor of all modern sciences has followed. Final causes,…
The four Aristotelean causes were devised as a means of explaining the world. From this , an Aristotelean science, predecessor of all modern sciences has followed. Final causes, or the purposes of things, are not popularly used – actually being unavailable to strict induction.