Category: Common Topics

Amos

We see Amos working during the time of Jeroboam II in Israel. He hails from Tekoa and is a herdsman and vinedresser. It may be that he traveled as a…

We see Amos working during the time of Jeroboam II in Israel. He hails from Tekoa and is a herdsman and vinedresser. It may be that he traveled as a businessman to Samaria in the north. (see verse 7:14). He becomes a nuisance to the northerners, as he prophecies at the height of prosperity (probably around 760 BC).

Note that Jonah worked for Jeroboam, and imagine his story going on in the background of this fiery work of Amos. We had surmised that Jonah’s worked happened around 763 BC in Nineveh. Might it be that the eclipse recorded in those days happened along with an earthquake, as mentioned in the beginning of this book of Amos? Fascinating to think of the signs and terror accompanying these things.

Divisions of the book:

For three transgressions and for four…

We have Amos (whose name needs ‘to be burdened’) laying burdens on 8 nations – coming to rest at last upon Israel.

Hear this Word…

Three forms of sins and judgement (therefore…) occur on into chapter 5. We end this section of three pronouncements (each bearing a different aspect of separation) with imagery concerning the coming day of the Lord.

Woe unto them…

Two forms of this predicted Woe follow
A highly evocative section begins at 5:18 concerning misguided piety.

The false security of the prosperous is condemned.

The Story of Amos and the North…

Amaziah the priest resents the words of Amos. This reminds us of the time of Ahab in 1 Kings 22, 2 Chronicles 18 and the controversy of the prophets.

The Visions surround the narrative of Amaziah…

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Athens

The major city on the Attic peninsula, populated initially by Ionians who were displaced from the north during the Dorian invasion. Athens is the center of Classical Greece, and provides…

The major city on the Attic peninsula, populated initially by Ionians who were displaced from the north during the Dorian invasion.

Athens is the center of Classical Greece, and provides a study of government by democracy.

Read Aristotle’s Constitution of Athens here.

The Government of Draco

Draco, apparently reacting to outrages perpetrated by land owners against the working people and vice versa, institutes harsh laws know even to this day as ‘Draconian’.

Plutarch from Life of Solon- on Solon’s founding of new laws following the rule of Draco:

First, then, he repealed all Draco’s laws, except those concerning homicide, because they were too severe, and the punishment too great; for death was appointed for almost all offences, insomuch that those that were convicted of idleness were to die, and those that stole a cabbage or an apple to suffer even as villains that committed sacrilege or murder. So that Demades, in after time, was thought to have said very happily, that Draco’s laws were written not with ink but blood; and he himself, being once asked why be made death the punishment of most offences, replied, “Small ones deserve that, and I have no higher for the greater crimes.”

The Government of Solon

a chart from the Penguin Atlas of World History

a chart from the Penguin Atlas of World History

Aristotle – Part 7 of the ‘Constitution of Athens’

Next Solon drew up a constitution and enacted new laws; and the ordinances of Draco ceased to be used, with the exception of those relating to murder. The laws were inscribed on the wooden stands, and set up in the King’s Porch, and all swore to obey them; and the nine Archons made oath upon the stone, declaring that they would dedicate a golden statue if they should transgress any of them. This is the origin of the oath to that effect which they take to the present day. Solon ratified his laws for a hundred years; and the following was the fashion in which he organized the constitution. He divided the population according to property into four classes, just as it had been divided before, namely, Pentacosiomedimni, Knights, Zeugitae, and Thetes. The various magistracies, namely, the nine Archons, the Treasurers, the Commissioners for Public Contracts (Poletae), the Eleven, and Clerks (Colacretae), he assigned to the Pentacosiomedimni, the Knights, and the Zeugitae, giving offices to each class in proportion to the value of their rateable property. To who ranked among the Thetes he gave nothing but a place in the Assembly and in the juries. A man had to rank as a Pentacosiomedimnus if he made, from his own land, five hundred measures, whether liquid or solid. Those ranked as Knights who made three hundred measures, or, as some say, those who were able to maintain a horse. In support of the latter definition they adduce the name of the class, which may be supposed to be derived from this fact, and also some votive offerings of early times; for in the Acropolis there is a votive offering, a statue of Diphilus, bearing this inscription:

The son of Diphilus, Athenion hight,
Raised from the Thetes and become a knight,
Did to the gods this sculptured charger bring,
For his promotion a thank-offering.
And a horse stands in evidence beside the man, implying that this was what was meant by belonging to the rank of Knight. At the same time it seems reasonable to suppose that this class, like the Pentacosiomedimni, was defined by the possession of an income of a certain number of measures. Those ranked as Zeugitae who made two hundred measures, liquid or solid; and the rest ranked as Thetes, and were not eligible for any office. Hence it is that even at the present day, when a candidate for any office is asked to what class he belongs, no one would think of saying that he belonged to the Thetes.

The Tyranny of the Pisitratids

Pisistratus and his sons (Hippias and Hipparchus) over numerous attempts eventually gain control of the government of Athens, reigning as  autocrats after disarming the population of Athens.  The Alcmeonids, an opposing family, eventually prevail upon Cleomenes, a king of Sparta, to intervene and banish the tyranny.  Hippias flees to the Troad.

The Government of Cleisthenes

Cleisthenes

Penguin Atlas of World History

Aristotle – Part 21 of ‘The Constitution of Athens’ 

The people, therefore, had good reason to place confidence in Cleisthenes. Accordingly, now that he was the popular leader, three years after the expulsion of the tyrants, in the archonship of Isagoras, his first step was to distribute the whole population into ten tribes in place of the existing four, with the object of intermixing the members of the different tribes, and so securing that more persons might have a share in the franchise. From this arose the saying ‘Do not look at the tribes’, addressed to those who wished to scrutinize the lists of the old families. Next he made the Council to consist of five hundred members instead of four hundred, each tribe now contributing fifty, whereas formerly each had sent a hundred. The reason why he did not organize the people into twelve tribes was that he might not have to use the existing division into trittyes; for the four tribes had twelve trittyes, so that he would not have achieved his object of redistributing the population in fresh combinations. Further, he divided the country into thirty groups of demes, ten from the districts about the city, ten from the coast, and ten from the interior. These he called trittyes; and he assigned three of them by lot to each tribe, in such a way that each should have one portion in each of these three localities. All who lived in any given deme he declared fellow-demesmen, to the end that the new citizens might not be exposed by the habitual use of family names, but that men might be officially described by the names of their demes; and accordingly it is by the names of their demes that the Athenians speak of one another. He also instituted Demarchs, who had the same duties as the previously existing Naucrari,–the demes being made to take the place of the naucraries. He gave names to the demes, some from the localities to which they belonged, some from the persons who founded them, since some of the areas no longer corresponded to localities possessing names. On the other hand he allowed every one to retain his family and clan and religious rites according to ancestral custom. The names given to the tribes were the ten which the Pythia appointed out of the hundred selected national heroes.

Themistocles in the time of the Persian War

See Herodotus.

Pericles in the time of the Peloponnesian War

See Thucydides.

The Rule of the 400 and the new Oligarchy (411 BC)

The Surrender to Sparta and the institution of the 30 (404BC)

Lysander and Pausanias or the Spartans require the long walls and the Piraeus to be dismantled, and a council of thirty upper class Athenians to take control. The Athenian citizens are disarmed.   Kritias and Theramenes quarrel over the assassination of prominent citizens, and Theramenes is eventually executed as a threat to the thirty.  Recorded by Xenophon here.

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Circumstance

The association of the student and his world

 

  • At the same time as the issue; where are they? who else is there? what is happening?
  • At the same time in another place; where are they?  who was there?  what is happening?
  • What is or was possible?
  • What is or was probable?
  • Power, will and opportunity
  • Who is interested?
  • What is the best choice?

The concerns of Grammar are people, places, things and times- the study of events.

The Logic of circumstance is concerned with causal relationships between events and ideas in the history of the world.

Rhetoric is the self aware inclusion of the student in circumstance, a relationship with the past that informs the present and indicates the future.

“The past is the present unrolled for inspection, the present is the past gathered for action.” -Will Durant

Omnibus

History:

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Comparison

  How is X the same as something/someone else What makes it different from what it is similar to? (see the predicables) What does it not share with the rest…

 

  • How is X the same as something/someone else
    • What makes it different from what it is similar to? (see the predicables)
    • What does it not share with the rest of its genus?
    • What was it in the past?
    • What might it be in the future?
    • What is its opposite in kind?
    • What is it analogous to?
    • Similitude:  The current situation is like one that we’ve seen before, i.e., the search for resemblances.
  • How is an X different from something/someone else
  • To what degree?
    • How does it compare to its normal version?
    • How does it differ from things that resemble it?
    • How is it different from precedents and parallel versions?
    • What is its range of variation?
    • Is its opposite or contrary better or worse
    • Is X better worse than Y?  more/less
    • How can it be evaluated?
    • What is the standard of evaluation?

Grammar includes the metaphor and simile.  Judgements of quality relate to beauty, goodness and truth.  Art is imitation.

Logic of comparison deals with the concrete and poesy, compared to the analytic mode of reason that subtracts from essence.   “my love is like a red red rose” “God is Love”.  Poetic reasoning is more compact and comprehensive than analytic.

Rhetoric of comparison is a formational discipline.  The ethical consideration determines what is best regarding choice.  The aesthetic consideration determines what is best regarding desirability.  Classical Christian Education is emphatically committed to the ‘best’.

 

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Definition

Aliquis definiverit vinciet – the act of apprehension whereby a term is commonly understood

The first of the 5 Common Topics –   Aliquis definit vincit.

Associated with the first act of reason, or simple apprehension.   A perception proceeds to form a thought, which in turn is abstracted into an idea, and finally denoted by a term.  Terms are the subjects of definition — De-finitio – a ‘bounded’ idea.

  • Who or What is X?
  • What kind of thing is X?
    • Formal or logical cause  (Comprehension, Connotation)
    • Genus and Species
  • What is X not?
  • What are the parts of X?
  • To What group does X belong?
  • What examples of the thing exist?  (Extension, Denotation)
  • Etymological definitions, the history of the word

Grammar includes vocabulary and the practical and theoretical sciences.

Material Logic sets forth the art of definition, division, categories, predication and causes.

 

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Greece

Greece Greece may be understood as the land of the Greeks, a history that breaks from the initial migration of an indo-european people into the Mycenean and Cretan world, later…

Greece

Greece may be understood as the land of the Greeks, a history that breaks from the initial migration of an indo-european people into the Mycenean and Cretan world, later into Doric, Ionic, and Attic components.

Maps as History overview of Greece.

Classical Greece

Beginning in the eighth century BC, Greece organizes around the city states.   Politics coalesces around systems of Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Democracy.  Ultimately, the Greek world expanded to Ionia in what is now western Turkey, Thrace and Macedonia, Thessaly, Attica and the Peloponnese.   Following the war with Persia in the early fifth century, political and military power centered in Sparta and Athens.  We read the history of these times primarily in Herodotus and Thucydides, also in the Lives of Plutarch.

Timeline of Classical Greece

Hellenic Greece

Following the campaigns of Alexander the Great, the old Persian Empire was supplanted by the control of the Seleucids, the Antigonids, and the Ptolemies.  These all devolved from the Macedonian Empire, all giving way eventually to the domination of Rome.

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Herodotus

Herodotus is known as the original Historian, attempting to relate causes in the aftermath of the victory and ascendence of the Athenians over the Persian Empire and the Aegean sea.

The History, a work of the ancient world, is remarkable for its scope, naturalistic explanations, and multiple viewpoints.  Herodotus is known as the original Historian, attempting to relate causes in the aftermath of the victory and ascendence of the Athenians over the Persian Empire and the Aegean sea.

We read of the Greco/Persian War here, and the entire book is written as an explanation of historical events that led to that point.

Book I

Herodotus concerns himself with the origin of the conflict between Persia and Greece which began with King Croessus of Lydia, who was overcome by the Persian king Cyrus.  Meanwhile, in Athens  a democracy forms against the rise of Pisistratus, and in Sparta a strict order of state gathers control of the Peloponnesus.  Cyrus, who overcomes the Medes and Scythia/Cimmeria alliance that overthrew the Assyrian Empire, captures Babylon and campaigns in Scythia against the Massagetae, where he is killed in battle.

herodotus-book-i

Book II

Cambyses comes to power and plans to enlarge the Persian empire in Egypt.  Herodotus provides a description of Egyptian history, customs and geography.

Book III

Cambyses defeats the son of Amasis in Egypt, continuing his campaign of conquest against the Ethiopians and Ammon.   He loses a large army in the desert west of Egypt, and goes mad in Egypt where he kills his brother and leaves Persia in confusion under the rule of the Magi (false Smerdis) at his death.  The Spartans interfere with the Island of Samos under Polycrates.   Herodotus, following the adventures of Darius who overthrows the Magi, meditates on the far east (India).  Darius, now firmly in command, conquers and subdues Samos, and reconquers Babylon which had revolted in the Persian chaotic interregnum.

Book IV

Darius begins an attack on the Scythians to the north of the Black Sea.  Herodotus explains the history of the Scythians, and speculates on Geography.  Darius, forced to retreat from Scythia, leaves his general Megabazus in Thrace, while he campaigns in Libya and against Cyrene.

Book V

While Megabazus subdues Thrace, a revolt, lead by Aristagoras breaks out against Otanes in Ionia.   Aristagoras seeks aid first from Cleomenes in Sparta (refused), and then in Athens.  Athens sends ships to aid the Ionians in their failed insurrection, angering Darius against the Athenians.

Book VI

Securing the Chersonese (Hellespont), the Persians gather the Greek cities and the Island of Aegina preparing for an assault on Athens.  Darius places Datis and Artaphernes in command, bringing Hippias back to reassume control of Athens.   Miltiades at the command of an Athenian and Plataean army routes the Persians at Marathon.

Book VII

Darius’ death means he will never get his vengeance against the Greeks.  Xerxes, succeeding to the throne, organizes a massive campaign against his father’s enemies.  The Persians face a naval disaster at Sepias, and march through Thrace and Macedon to face king Leonidas of the Spartans in the Battle of Thermopylae.

Book VIII

Beginning with the naval battle of Artemisium, the Greeks retreat toward Athens, deciding between the Isthmus (Corinth) and the bay of Salamis.  The battle of Salamis results in a defeat for Xerxes.   Alexander of Macedon is sent by the Persian king to bargain for the surrender of Athens, and we read of the heritage of Alexander the Great.

Book IX

The finale of Herodotus is mostly concerned with Mardonius (the Persian general) and the Battle of Plataea (1st battle).  The Persians are defeated and also driven from the Chersonese.

 

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History

“The past is the present unrolled for inspection, the present is the past gathered for action.” -Will Durant

We read historians – our history of Western Civilization in particular draws its historiography from Herodotus as the original historian.

Historians:

History of Western Civilization

We tend to think in terms of the Ancient, Medieval, and Modern periods.

That which hath been is now, and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past.  Ecclesiastes 3:15

“The past is the present unrolled for inspection, the present is the past gathered for action.” -Will Durant

“History is the fruit and the proof of man’s freedom.” -Reinhold Niebuhr

Theoretical Historians:

Inferring a pattern to history that extends beyond sufficient causes, the theorist adduces a scheme.  This is sometimes called ‘internal’ causes, referring to the free choices of man and the will of God.  Examples –

  • Moses (Genesis)
  • St Augustine (The City of God)
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • Edward Gibbon (Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire)
  • Voltaire
  • Leopold von Ranke  — a peculiar example
  • H. G. Wells
  • Will Durant
  • Arnold J. Toynbee (A Study of History)
  • Oswald Spengler (The Decline of the West)
  • J.M. Roberts (The Penguin History of the Word)

The Ancient Theory of History:

The gods make history, and man succeeds or falls in his relation to the gods.  Most ancient theories of history pessimistically consider that doom of man, an eternal servant to the deity.  There is a beginning, and for some and end.

The Classical Theory of History:

“Nothing happens in the universe if you consider the infinite time past” – Epicurus

“The Rational soul wanders around the whole world and through the encompassing void and gazes on infinite time and considers the periodic destructions and rebirths of the universe and reflects that our posterity will see nothing new and that our ancestors saw nothing that we have not seen” – Marcus Aurelius

We see a similarity in the view of history between the Epicurean and Stoic schools.  Time is considered infinite, and therefore repetitive.  The relation is necessary, as that which has no beginning cannot end, and cannot have a point of causation, but only intermediate causes.

Reinhold Neibuhr points out that Thucydides begins his history considering Athens to be a novelty in history (progressive), but ends his work resorting to basic classical historical pessimism.  For the Greeks, natural causation becomes a focus and sufficient to explain efficient cause.  The gods themselves are subject to history.

The Medieval Theory of History:

The Christianization of the West leads to an understanding of the Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Man.  The relation of these two historical forces and their patterns, as well as the position of time in its relation to the eschaton (end of the Kingdom of Man) becomes the focus of particular theories.  Time is conceived as limited, having a beginning and end, which implies progress along a line.  This concept, inherited from the Hebrew conception of prophecy and fulfillment leads to ‘progressivism’ as opposed to basic ‘pessimism’.

“Humility is as profitable to those who serve as pride is harmful to those who rule” — St. Augustine, City of God XIX:15

The Modern Theory of History:

The Modern Theory of History is fundamentally progressive, yet paradoxically resurrecting the idea of infinite time, this theory views human dynamism as producing the desired stasis of history.  A theory of ‘Whig History’ sees the emergence and perfection of History as the very structure of history itself.

History Timeline

World History Website

Histomap

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Hosea

Hosea:  “The Lord Saves” Hosea cannot bear to speak of judgement without speaking of redemption.   For this reason, we think of Hosea as the prophet with the biggest heart….

Hosea:  “The Lord Saves”

Hosea cannot bear to speak of judgement without speaking of redemption.   For this reason, we think of Hosea as the prophet with the biggest heart.

Continuing a theme detected in Amos, Hosea expounds on the ripening evil of the Kingdom of Israel, and is commanded to take a harlot as his wife, to illustrate with his life amidst his countrymen the pain of estrangement that exists between God and his people.

We encounter the three children:  Scattered, Unpitied, and Stranger.

In Chapters 1 and 2 we see fine examples of Chiasm, Chapter 3 clarifies and specifies the situation in Hosea’s immediate future.

The Chapters 4 through 10 are meditations on the events of Hosea’s day.

 

The Circumstance of Hosea’s prophecies

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