This occurs in two ways:

  1. A proper name may be substituted representing qualities – “He was the Jehu of shopping cart driving.”  “The warnings of health care collapse came from the Cassandra of the Senate.”
  2. Conversely, a phrase describing attributes may be substituted for a proper name.  “Old Shatter-Hand drew his rifle on the bandits.”  “The sanctimonious poser admonished the country to have open discussions on racial inequity.”