In Philosophy, we encounter the poetic reasoning of the eastern sages from the time of Sumer and Egypt, the proverbial wisdom of Solomon, and the dialogues of the Greeks. Aristotle can be seen to usher in the modern mindset, with its insistence on analysis. Euclid sets the pattern for western certainty, and Lucretius muses on material determinism. Cicero and Seneca frame the ethics of man’s duty to man.
Theology moves from the gods created in man’s image toward the word made flesh, only preexistent son of the preexistent God of the abyss. The God of history seeks man, the god of the pagan myths uses man or is unconcerned with him.
History is observed in ancient stele and tablets, archaeology informs our study of anthropology, and we observe the invention of written language, alphabets and grammar. Following upon the Ancient era is the Medieval era.