The Aeneid

Aneas, fleeing the downfall of Troy, makes his way to ‘Hesperia’ where his conquests will lead to foundation of Rome, and the initiation of the Julii. Like Odysseus, his destination comes only after multiple adventures, including a doomed sojourn in the city of Carthage or ‘Byrsa’ with the first ruler of that city – Queen Dido. Compare the voyage of Aeneas with the voyage of Odysseus in The Odyssey.

aeneas.PNG

 

Book I – Juno tries to obliterate the fleeing Trojans

Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit
litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram;
multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem, 5
inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum,
Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.
1. Juno – Aeolus- Neptune: The Storm

Juno asks Aeolus for a favor!

‘Aeole, namque tibi divom pater atque hominum rex 65
et mulcere dedit fluctus et tollere vento,
gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor,
Ilium in Italiam portans victosque Penates:
incute vim ventis submersasque obrue puppes,
aut age diversos et disiice corpora ponto. 70
Sunt mihi bis septem praestanti corpore nymphae,
quarum quae forma pulcherrima Deiopea,
conubio iungam stabili propriamque dicabo,
omnis ut tecum meritis pro talibus annos
exigat, et pulchra faciat te prole parentem.’ 75

Aeolus in reply…

Aeolus haec contra: ‘Tuus, O regina, quid optes
explorare labor; mihi iussa capessere fas est.
2. Aeneas meets his mother – Venus (in disguise- she disguises him)

3. The temple of Juno – the Bronze Depiction of the battle of Troy
a. Ekphrasis — the review of the Trojan scene

Aneas gazes on the bronze reproduction of the Trojan War….

Constitit, et lacrimans, ‘Quis iam locus’ inquit ‘Achate,
quae regio in terris nostri non plena laboris? 460
En Priamus! Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi;
sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt.
Solve metus; feret haec aliquam tibi fama salutem.’

b. The present tense verbs

4. Aeneas and Achates are revealed to Dido

5. Venus enlists Cupid to protect Aeneas (with powerful consequences!)
Book II – The Iliad Part 2

1. The Trojan Horse

2. A Greek bearing gifts – a tale – Sinon

3. Laocoon and the Serpents

4. Priam’s last stand

5. Anchises, Creusa and Ascanius
a. Ascanius (Iulus)’s head catches fire (see Livy)
b. Aeneas carries Anchises away on his back
c. Creusa is a ghost!

ausus quin etiam voces iactare per umbram
implevi clamore vias, maestusque Creusam
nequiquam ingeminans iterumque iterumque vocavi. 770
quaerenti et tectis urbis sine fine ruenti
infelix simulacrum atque ipsius umbra Creusae
visa mihi ante oculos et nota maior imago.
obstipui, steteruntque comae et uox faucibus haesit.
tum sic adfari et curas his demere dictis: 775
‘quid tantum insano iuvat indulgere dolori,
o dulcis coniunx? non haec sine numine divum
eveniunt; nec te comitem hinc portare Creusam
fas, aut ille sinit superi regnator Olympi.
longa tibi exsilia et vastum maris aequor arandum, 780
et terram Hesperiam venies, ubi Lydius arva
inter opima virum leni fluit agmine Thybris.
illic res laetae regnumque et regia coniunx
parta tibi; lacrimas dilectae pelle Creusae.
non ego Myrmidonum sedes Dolopumue superbas 785
aspiciam aut Grais servitum matribus ibo,
Dardanis et divae Veneris nurus;
sed me magna deum genetrix his detinet oris.
iamque vale et nati serva communis amorem.’
haec ubi dicta dedit, lacrimantem et multa volentem 790
dicere deseruit, tenuisque recessit in auras.
ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum;
ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago,
par levibus ventis volucrique simillima somno.
sic demum socios consumpta nocte reviso. 795

Book III – The Odyssey Part 2

1. Sailing to Thrace

2. On to Delos

3. To Crete
Aeneas learns of Hesperia.

4. Strophades – harpies!

Celaeno the Harpy prophesies: “Permitted to enter port but never granted a iity girded round by ramparts, not before some terrible hunger and your attack on us- outrageous slaughter- drive you to gnaw your platters with your teeth!” (Fagles, Book III — line 309)

5. Actium – site of future importance

6. Phaeacia
Andromache survives.

7. The Coast of the Cyclops

8. Drepanum and the death of Anchises
Book IV – Dido dies of love – Aeneas follows his destiny
Lovesick on the coming departure of Aeneas…

Et iam prima novo spargebat lumine terras
Tithoni croceum linquens Aurora cubile. 585
regina e speculis ut primam albescere lucem
vidit et aequatis classem procedere velis,
litoraque et vacuos sensit sine remige portus,
terque quaterque manu pectus percussa decorum
flaventisque abscissa comas ‘pro Iuppiter! ibit 590
hic,’ ait ‘et nostris inluserit advena regnis?
non arma expedient totaque ex urbe sequentur,
diripientque rates alii navalibus? ite,
ferte citi flammas, date tela, impellite remos!
quid loquor? aut ubi sum? quae mentem insania mutat? 595
infelix Dido, nunc te facta impia tangent?

Dido and Aeneas Score

 

Book VI – Aeneas procures the ‘Golden Bough’ and travels to the underworld
The land of the dead lies past the Sybil at Cumae, in a deep cave with subterranean waters.

 

Cave at Cumae
The Sybil’s cave – Aeneas in the underworld. Map from the Barrington Classical Atlas

Book VI (cont.)

1. The Temple of Apollo at Cumae

2. The Sybil –
“poscere fata tempus” ait: “deus, ecce, deus!”
She undergoes a ‘possession’

3. Prophecy –Turnus — the new Achilles

4. The Golden Bough

5. Misenus – the funeral

6. Avernus —- the Birdless Place!
– the mother of the Eumenides – Night (daugher of Chaos)
-Stygian King – Pluto
-the empty halls of Dis

7. Acheron
-Charon the boatman
-Palinarus (the unburied!)

8. Cerberus

9. The Mourning Fields
Dido
Sychaeus

10. The Far Fields –Neither Elysium or Tartarus
Warriors
-who is Deiphobus

The glorious future of Rome (actually history!) according to Father Anchises:
excudent alii spirantia mollius aera
(credo equidem), vivos ducent de marmore vultus,
orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus
describent radio et surgentia sidera dicent: 850
tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento
(hae tibi erunt artes), pacique imponere morem,
parcere subiectis et debellare superbos.’

The Gates of Sleep – one of horn, the other of ivory.

The Iliad

Did the Trojan War really happen?   The Late Bronze Age saw the fall of many civilizations, a time chronicled for Israel in the book of Judges.

A timeline for Mycenaean civilization, the era of the Trojan War, the Minoans, and the so-called Dorian Invasion is available.  The Timeline.

See ” In Search of the Trojan War “, a multipart BBC documentary providing an interesting background of the work and its critical-historical context.

Was Homer an actual poet?  The unity of the composition, originally an oral Epic, shows a highly focused intention.

Geometric Outline of the Text by Cedric Whitman

(Whitman, Cedric Hubbell. Homer and the Heroic Tradition. New York: W.W. Norton, 1965. Print.)

Geometric Iliad
Geometric relationship of the Iliad

Book I 

The Rage of Achilles sets the scene.  The conflict between Agamemnon and Achilles soon becomes a conflict between Zeus and Hera.  Zeus Broods over his choices.

Book II

Zeus initiates his plan in a deceptive dream.   The Achaeans are deceived into prosecuting the war.  The Catalog of Ships counts off the participants.

catalog of ships map
This map connects the names and the geography of Mycenae

Book III

A duel between Menelaus and Paris is thwarted by the intervention of of Aphrodite.  The Judgment of Paris and its ramifications, as well as its reflection on the characters of Aphrodite and Paris, the involvement of Helen and her doom are shown.

Book IV

Zeus and Hera come to an understanding concerning the destruction of cities.   Pandarus unleashes a treacherous arrow, wounding Menelaus.  Agamemnon marshals his troops, and war begins in earnest.  Treachery of the Trojans.

Book V

Diomedes begins his warring bolstered by Athena.  Pandarus tries to bring him down with an arrow, but he is too favored to be stopped.  Aphrodite, Apollo, then Ares are subdued, Hera and Athena being matchless.

Book VI

Hector marshals his troops back in Troy.  Glaucus meets Diomedes, and they reflect on man and friendship.  Hector meets with Andromache, and wishes the future for Astyanax.  This is the pity of the Trojans.

Book VII

A duel is set in the plains.   The hero Hector meets with the Giant Ajax and they battle each other to a draw.  Gifts are exchanged and piety reigns.

Book VIII

Zeus sets the battle in motion with his lightening.  Hera and Athena are outraged, but restrained from interference.  Zeus pronounces his doom, and Troy pushes to across the plains to encamp in the night, waiting to assault the Argive ships in the morning.

Book IX

Agamemnon is distraught, his advisor Nestor advises reconciliation with Achilles.   Three heroes, Odysseus, Nestor, and Ajax are appointed to appeal the Argives case to Achilles.   Achilles sleeps on it.

Book X

Odysseus and Diomedes execute a night raid into the plains below Troy.   They destroy sleeping men and steal horses.  They encounter a Trojan infiltrator, Dolon, who they interrogate and execute.

Book XI

Dawn rises, and Eris (strife) shouts Agamemnon on to battle.  The Mycenaean chief battles forward, and Hector who is advised by Zeus withdraws.   In succession, Agamemnon, Diomedes and Odysseus receive wounds and withdraw.   Achilles, concerned over the rout, sends Patroclus to investigate where he meets Nestor, who suggests that Patroclus himself should lead the Myrmidons out to fight.

Book XII

Hector continues the assault.   An evil bird omen appears, and Polydamas warns Hector of his fate, but Hector seizes the opportunity and pushes the fight through the Achaean trenches.   Sarpedon and Glaucus commit to the assault.

Book XIII

During a lull in Zeus’ attention, Poseidon takes the Argives plight in his hands, and helps them to drive the Trojans back.   Polydamas urges Hector to regroup, and he does.   Zeus returns and the Trojans push the Argives back once again.

Book XIV

Now the wounded trio of Odysseus, Agamemnon and Diomedes must return to direct their flagging troops from the rear.  Hera distracts Zeus and returns Poseidon to the fight.   Ajax severely wounds Hector with a thrown boulder.

Book XV

Zeus awakens and in rage returns to the battle.  Zeus reveals his doomsday plan to the frightened Hera, who returns in horrified resignation to Olympus.   Patroclus, now alarmed at the Trojans reaching the ships, resolves to beg Achilles to intervene.

Book XVI

Achilles’ rage against Agamemnon is unabated.  He suggests that Patroclus borrow his armor, and lead the Myrmidons forth himself, being careful to only drive the Trojans away, but not to pursue them to Troy.  Patroclus, exulting in his success in battle, not only pursues the Trojans to the walls, but assaults Apollo himself, who ultimately kills Patroclus.

Iliad reading guide XVI

Book XVII

Menelaus sets forth to recover Patroclus’ corpse.  Hector decides to don the armor of Achilles and enter the struggle for the body.   The Argives manage to keep the body of Patroclus, retreating with it headlong to the ships and the beach.

Iliad Reading Guide XVII

Book XVIII

Achilles now learns of the death of his best friend.   Achilles weeps, decides his doom in battle, and utters the loud cry from the trench, stopping the battle.   Hephaestus sets to making new armor for the warrior.

Iliad Reading Guide XVIII

Book XIX

Achilles meets now with Agamemnon.   He refuses food and drink, hungry only for battle.  His horse prophesies his death, and Achilles, telling him not to waste his breath, drives his chariot forward.

Iliad Reading Guide XIX

Book XX

Zeus sets the gods loose to war among themselves with the Trojans and Greeks.  Achilles faces Aeneas, who is saved by the gods.   Achilles blazes forward.

Iliad Guide XX

Book XXI

Achilles, killing so many men in the river bed, offends the river god Scamander.   Achilles is nearly overwhelmed fighting the river itself, but is  saved as Hephaestus’ fire assaults the torrent.  Apollo diverts the ravening Achilles by a ruse, leading him far from the Trojan walls.

Iliad Guide XXI

Book XXII

The Trojans open their gates to allow their army to shelter within the walls.   Hector waits for Achilles outside, tricked by Athena into believing his brother Deiphobus is there to fight with him.   Achilles chases Hector around the city three times then kills Hector, dragging off the body behind his chariot.

Book XXIII

Achilles prepares for the funeral games of Patroclus.   The Argive heroes compete in a series of contests and Achilles awards prizes.   The funeral pyre is built, massive sacrifices, including twelve Trojans, are slaughtered and burned along with Patroclus’ corpse.

Book XXIV

The gods are shocked and insulted by Achilles treatment of the body of Hector.   Thetis is sent to beg Achilles to release the body, and king Priam journeys clandestinely through the Argive lines to approach Achilles.   Achilles and Priam grieve together,  agreeing to a funeral truce as Priam retrieves the body of his son for burial.

 

 

The Odyssey

The heroic epic of Homer concerning Odysseus.

The Predicables

The predicables, unlike the categories, express the relation of a predicate term to its subject in a proposition.

They apply to universal concepts (classes) and not individuals.

  • Genus

Is the ‘note’ of essence that is common to all of its subspecies.  Example:  A Bus is a Truck

  • Specific Difference

This distinguishes a species from all other species in its genus.

  • Species

What individuals (instances – both form and quantity) have in common with their class (form only).

  • Property

Property flows necessarily from essence.  Wherever that class extends, so does this property.  It is, however, not a specific difference or part of the essential definition of that class.

  • Accident

Exists only contingently.  They may or may not accompany the essential presence of the predicated subject.

The Problem Statement

Write Stasis/Problem Statement – Friday Week 11

By the eleventh week of the project, the solidifying of STASIS will bring the Narratio of the paper into sharper view.  Additionally, a clear thesis and problem statement will be exposed.  Stasis theory is one important way to expose a Thesis.  We ask Whether something is, What is IS, and What is its Value.  This exposes a problem, and we propose what should be DONE.  (Thesis).

You will write this as a four paragraph project.   Keep in mind that the the force of your presentation and argument will figure in the selection of your project by an interested advisor.   The advisor selection will occur in the 13th week.