Inductive Science

Modern Science

What is called “Modern Science” has its basis in the therapy of doubt.   By this proposition, all causes must be doubted until ‘proved’ beyond a shadow of that doubt.

All assumptions proceed from the assumption of two propositions:

The Inductive Proposition of Causality assumes that all things are effects of a cause.

The principle of Uniform Causation assumes that given the same causes in the same conditions the same effects will occur.


Causal Reasoning

We distinguish causes of being from causes of understanding.

The Four Causes described by Aristotle are narrowed to the consideration of efficient cause and material cause in modern science.  This narrowing of scope is a subtraction of the intuitive or axiomatic proposition for the purposes of producing a knowledge that can be theoretical or productive.

Applied science reasons from cause to effect, which is a predictive science.  It depends on the effective work of theoretical science, which has properly deduced cause from effect, or alternately said, has reasoned from effect to cause.

In the course of determining causation, we distinguish Necessary Cause from Sufficient Cause, noticing that without Necessary Cause, the effect cannot happen.  With the introduction of the Sufficient Cause, the effect must happen.

The Problematic Induction

A Problematic Induction as an hypothesis.  The hypothesis developed from understanding, intuition or habit of observation must be tested by a disciplined observation of induction.

Mill’s Canon of Causal Induction

1. Method of Agreement

“If two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance in which alone all the instance agree is the cause (or effect) of the given phenomenon.”

2. Method of Difference

“If an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every circumstance in common save one, that one occurring only in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instance differ is the effect, or the cause, or and indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.”

3. Joint Method of Agreement and Difference

“If two or more instances in which the phenomenon occurs have only one circumstance in common, while two or more instances in which it does not occur have nothing in common save the absence of that circumstance, the circumstance in which alone the two sets of instance differ is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.”

4. Method of Residues

“Subduct from any phenomenon such part as is known by previous inductions to be the effect of certain antecedents, and the residue of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents.”

5. Method of Concomitant Variations

“Whatever phenomenon varies in any manner whenever another phenomenon varies in some particular manner, is either a cause or an effect of that phenomenon, or is connected with it through some fact of causation.”

Iron Age

  • Early Iron Age
    • 1300-500 BC
    • Trojan War – Homer
    • Philistine invasion – Samuel and Kings
    • Fall of Israel/Judah
    • Roman Kingdom – Livy
  • Middle Iron Age
    • 500-250 AD
    • Greco/Persian War – Herodotus
    • Peloponnesian War – Thucydides
    • Roman Republic/Empire – Civil Wars – Livy, Suetonius, Tacitus
    • Return of Judah, destruction of the temple, diaspora – Esther, Nehemiah, Josephus
  • Late Iron Age
    • 250-500 AD
    • Western/Eastern Roman Empire
    • Fall of Rome
    • Gothic Invasions
    • Parthian Empire