The association of the student and his world
- At the same time as the issue; where are they? who else is there? what is happening?
- At the same time in another place; where are they? who was there? what is happening?
- What is or was possible?
- What is or was probable?
- Power, will and opportunity
- Who is interested?
- What is the best choice?
The concerns of Grammar are people, places, things and times- the study of events.
The Logic of circumstance is concerned with causal relationships between events and ideas in the history of the world.
Rhetoric is the self aware inclusion of the student in circumstance, a relationship with the past that informs the present and indicates the future.
“The past is the present unrolled for inspection, the present is the past gathered for action.” -Will Durant
- How is X the same as something/someone else
- What makes it different from what it is similar to? (see the predicables)
- What does it not share with the rest of its genus?
- What was it in the past?
- What might it be in the future?
- What is its opposite in kind?
- What is it analogous to?
- Similitude: The current situation is like one that we’ve seen before, i.e., the search for resemblances.
- How is an X different from something/someone else
- To what degree?
- How does it compare to its normal version?
- How does it differ from things that resemble it?
- How is it different from precedents and parallel versions?
- What is its range of variation?
- Is its opposite or contrary better or worse
- Is X better worse than Y? more/less
- How can it be evaluated?
- What is the standard of evaluation?
Grammar includes the metaphor and simile. Judgements of quality relate to beauty, goodness and truth. Art is imitation.
Logic of comparison deals with the concrete and poesy, compared to the analytic mode of reason that subtracts from essence. “my love is like a red red rose” “God is Love”. Poetic reasoning is more compact and comprehensive than analytic.
Rhetoric of comparison is a formational discipline. The ethical consideration determines what is best regarding choice. The aesthetic consideration determines what is best regarding desirability. Classical Christian Education is emphatically committed to the ‘best’.