• What conditions are in effect?  a fortiori
  • What comes first?  a priori – in time or causation.
  • What happened immediately before and after X? causation – a posteriori
    • did _ cause _? modus ponens/modus tollens
    • If _ is true, what cannot be true? contradiction (square of opposition)
    • Are _ and _ mutually exclusive, or can they coexist?  contrariety (square of opposition)
  • Ramification
    • What were/would be the effects if the choice is affirmative?
    • What were/would be the effects if the choice is negative
  • Final Cause
  • Efficient Cause
  • Sufficient and Necessary Cause

The laws of reason bound the possibilities of inference.

The activities of human reason:

  1. Simple Apprehension – Term
    1. sense perception – perception
    2. image – imagination
    3. abstraction – intuition
  2. Judgement – Proposition
    1. a connection of abstractions
    2. logical relationship of ideas
    3. truth or falsehood
  3. Inference – Conclusion
    1. deductive – universal
    2. inductive – particular

Formal Logic provides validity of an argument (terms, propositions and conclusions) as to their proper connection.

Propositional Logic and symbolic logic are abstractions of the relation of propositions through logical operators.

Material Logic examines the content of terms.

Research Plan I

Research Plan I – Friday Week 6

The research plan will eventually evolve into the arguments and grammatical material (logic and grammar) of the Thesis. Beginning with an invention sheet based on the Working Hypothesis, the student conducts an ‘A.N.I’ (affirmative, negative, interesting) assessment based on the Five Common Topics. These results, mostly questions, will indicate the direction of research.

The Five Common Topics are:


Arrange your questions by these categories, approaching each as a positive, a negative, and an ‘interesting’ aspect of the question.