Herodotus

Herodotus is known as the original Historian, attempting to relate causes in the aftermath of the victory and ascendence of the Athenians over the Persian Empire and the Aegean sea.

The History, a work of the ancient world, is remarkable for its scope, naturalistic explanations, and multiple viewpoints.  Herodotus is known as the original Historian, attempting to relate causes in the aftermath of the victory and ascendence of the Athenians over the Persian Empire and the Aegean sea.

We read of the Greco/Persian War here, and the entire book is written as an explanation of historical events that led to that point.

Book I

Herodotus concerns himself with the origin of the conflict between Persia and Greece which began with King Croessus of Lydia, who was overcome by the Persian king Cyrus.  Meanwhile, in Athens  a democracy forms against the rise of Pisistratus, and in Sparta a strict order of state gathers control of the Peloponnesus.  Cyrus, who overcomes the Medes and Scythia/Cimmeria alliance that overthrew the Assyrian Empire, captures Babylon and campaigns in Scythia against the Massagetae, where he is killed in battle.

herodotus-book-i

Book II

Cambyses comes to power and plans to enlarge the Persian empire in Egypt.  Herodotus provides a description of Egyptian history, customs and geography.

Book III

Cambyses defeats the son of Amasis in Egypt, continuing his campaign of conquest against the Ethiopians and Ammon.   He loses a large army in the desert west of Egypt, and goes mad in Egypt where he kills his brother and leaves Persia in confusion under the rule of the Magi (false Smerdis) at his death.  The Spartans interfere with the Island of Samos under Polycrates.   Herodotus, following the adventures of Darius who overthrows the Magi, meditates on the far east (India).  Darius, now firmly in command, conquers and subdues Samos, and reconquers Babylon which had revolted in the Persian chaotic interregnum.

Book IV

Darius begins an attack on the Scythians to the north of the Black Sea.  Herodotus explains the history of the Scythians, and speculates on Geography.  Darius, forced to retreat from Scythia, leaves his general Megabazus in Thrace, while he campaigns in Libya and against Cyrene.

Book V

While Megabazus subdues Thrace, a revolt, lead by Aristagoras breaks out against Otanes in Ionia.   Aristagoras seeks aid first from Cleomenes in Sparta (refused), and then in Athens.  Athens sends ships to aid the Ionians in their failed insurrection, angering Darius against the Athenians.

Book VI

Securing the Chersonese (Hellespont), the Persians gather the Greek cities and the Island of Aegina preparing for an assault on Athens.  Darius places Datis and Artaphernes in command, bringing Hippias back to reassume control of Athens.   Miltiades at the command of an Athenian and Plataean army routes the Persians at Marathon.

Book VII

Darius’ death means he will never get his vengeance against the Greeks.  Xerxes, succeeding to the throne, organizes a massive campaign against his father’s enemies.  The Persians face a naval disaster at Sepias, and march through Thrace and Macedon to face king Leonidas of the Spartans in the Battle of Thermopylae.

Book VIII

Beginning with the naval battle of Artemisium, the Greeks retreat toward Athens, deciding between the Isthmus (Corinth) and the bay of Salamis.  The battle of Salamis results in a defeat for Xerxes.   Alexander of Macedon is sent by the Persian king to bargain for the surrender of Athens, and we read of the heritage of Alexander the Great.

Book IX

The finale of Herodotus is mostly concerned with Mardonius (the Persian general) and the Battle of Plataea (1st battle).  The Persians are defeated and also driven from the Chersonese.

 

Historical Reading List

A list of books follows by dates.  This will be added to periodically to allow a more comprehensive inclusion of texts for the purpose of Omnibus curriculum.

Aeon Timeline Export

 

Date Event Title End Date Duration Tags
2145 BC Composition of Job 1799 BC 346 Years
2100 BC Epic of Gilgamesh 2100 BC 0 Years Gilgamesh,Uruk,nineveh,Akkadian,Sumerian
Twelve tablets — found in many sites from Uruk to Babylon – a common story of Mesopotamia

Some recovered in the library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh

Wiki
Translation
1850 BC Enuma Elish 1749 BC 101 Years nineveh,Tiamat,Marduk,Apsu
The earth from the ‘abyss’ (Apsu)
Translation
1840 BC Epic of Gilgamesh (c) 1739 BC 101 Years Akkadian,Myth,Uruk
Compiled from Sumerian legends – Sumerian sources have been found – the complete epic is in Akkadian
1754 BC Code of Hammurabi 1754 BC 0 Years Babylon,Hammurabi,Akkadian,Law,Marduk
Translation
1700 BC Egyptian Book of the Dead 1700 BC 0 Years Books,Egypt
Wiki
1430 BC The Pentateuch 1399 BC 31 Years Moses
The Five Scrolls
Wiki
1020 BC Psalms 949 BC 71 Years
1016 BC The Iliad 907 BC 109 Years Homer,Poetry,Myth
Wiki
Butler
Greek
1000 BC The Odyssey 849 BC 151 Years Greek,Myth,Homer,Poetry
Butler
Greek
970 BC Proverbs 929 BC 41 Years
459 BC Premier of the Oresteia 459 BC 0 Years Drama
Play concerning the aftermath of the curse of the house of Atreus – Aeschylus
Agamemnon
Libation
Eumenides
450 BC Herodotus Histories 439 BC 11 Years History,Persia,Greek
M.I.T.
Greek
440 BC The Theban Plays 408 BC 32 Years
Wiki
Gutenberg
423 BC ‘The Clouds’ Premier 423 BC 0 Years Drama,Comedy,Greek
Aristophanes mockery of fashionable philosophizing
420 BC Thucydides Pelopponesian War 412 BC 8 Years Peloponnesian War,Persia,Greek
Gutenberg
Greek
401 BC Oedipus at Colonus 401 BC 0 Years Greek,Sophocles,Theban
390 BC Last Days of Socrates 379 BC 11 Years Plato,Greek
Plato recounts the trial of Socrates
Gutenberg
Euthyprho
380 BC Anabasis 380 BC 0 Years Persia,Xenophon,Sparta
Gutenberg
364 BC Hellenika of Xenophon 354 BC 10 Years Xenophon,Persia,Sparta,Athens
Gutenberg
360 BC The Republic 360 BC 0 Years Socrates,Plato,Greek
346 BC The Organon 346 BC 0 Years Logic
Online
80 BC Ad Herrenium 80 BC 0 Years Rome,Rhetoric,Books
Once attributed to Cicero – oldest surviving Roman book on Rhetoric
parallel
70 BC Works of Cicero 42 BC 28 Years Rome,Roman Emperor,Law
Gutenberg
Latin Library
70 BC De Rerum Natura 49 BC 21 Years Poetry,Rome,Roman Emperor,Epicureanism
English Trans
Latin Text
29 BC Aeneid 18 BC 11 Years Poetry,Rome,Roman Emperor,Augustus
Epic poem of the founding of Rome. Virgil
Wiki
Perseus
Dryden
25 BC Ab urbe condita 5 BC 20 Years History,Rome
History of Rome by Livy
Latin Library
58 AD Apostolic Fathers 169 AD 111 Years
75 AD The Jewish War 77 AD 2 Years josephus
95 AD Jewish Antiquities 95 AD 0 Years
109 AD The Annals 121 AD 12 Years Rome,Roman Emperor,History
Tacitus chronicles paranoia amongst the Emperors, and the crucifixion of Christ
M.I.T.
115 AD The Lives of the Twelve Caesars 131 AD 16 Years Rome,History,Roman Emperor
Suetonius’ highly critical work of the lives of the first twelve Caesars.
Gutenberg
Parallel Texts
190 AD Plutarch’s Parallel Lives 190 AD 0 Years Greek,Books
online
240 AD Composition of the Hexapla 251 AD 11 Years Bible,Alexandria,Origen,Caesarea
5 translation interlinear work
www.hexapla.org
326 AD Eusebius Ecclesiastical History 326 AD 0 Years Eusebius
pdfonline
355 AD Ad Constantium Augustum liber primus 355 AD 0 Years Hilary,Constantius,Arian
Writing to the emperor against the persecutions of Valens, and the rising Arianism

Hillary of Poitiers

hilary-chart
25706
368 AD On the Incarnation of our Lord 368 AD 0 Years Alexandria,Athanasius
online
396 AD Confessions of Augustine 396 AD 0 Years Manicheanism,platonism
World’s first Autobiography
august.html
Two Translations
400 AD Jerome Translates the Vulgate 419 AD 19 Years Bible
www.latinvulgate.com
413 AD City of God 427 AD 14 Years Arian
august.html
indexed trans
523 AD De Consolatione Philosophae 525 AD 2 Years Boethius
Gutenberg
Indexed Trans
530 AD The Rule of Saint Benedict 530 AD 0 Years Benedictine,monasticism,Italy
Benedict online
546 AD On the Destruction of Britain 546 AD 0 Years Book,History,Arthur,Briton,Anglo-Saxon
St. Gildas, Welsh monk on early Arthurian tales.
759
580 AD Decem Libri Historiarum 591 AD 11 Years Franks,Nicene,Arian,Visigoth
Gregory of Tours
gregory-hist.asp
gregorytours.html
623 AD Etymology 631 AD 8 Years Isidore of Seville,Seville,epitome
Trivium, Quadrivium
home.html
650 AD Beowulf -Caedmon 650 AD 0 Years Norse,Anglo-Saxon
FullDisplay.aspx?index=0&ref=Cotton_MS_vitellius_a_xv
a04_01.htm
beowulf-list
690 AD Development of the Koran 1001 AD 311 Years Islam,Muhammed,Umayyad,Caliph’,Othman
New York Times
Origins
indexed
More Origins
731 AD Ecclesiastical History of the English People 731 AD 0 Years England,Bede,Books,History
bede.html
Gutenberg
750 AD The Elder Edda 1101 AD 351 Years Norse,Poet,Burgundy
Gutenberg
809 AD Life of Charles the Great 809 AD 0 Years Charlemagne,Carolingian,monasticism
Two lives of Charlemagne
Gutenberg Link
910 AD The Greek Anthology 910 AD 0 Years Books
A digest of quotes, poetry, inscriptions: Christian and classical.
Parallel Trans.
976 AD The Suda 976 AD 0 Years Encyclopedia,Book,Byzantium
Suda online
1000 AD Völsunga Saga 1251 AD 251 Years Franks,Burgundy,Norse
Developed from an oral tradition concerning the downfall of the Burgundians – Icelandic prose in written form
indexed translation
1025 AD Micrologus of Guido d’Arezzo 1025 AD 0 Years music
Development of ‘ut re mi fa sol’ Western music theory and polyphony
micrologus
1040 AD Song of Roland 1116 AD 76 Years Charlemagne,Roland,Islam,Franks,
Chanson du Geste
show?collection=bodleian&manuscript=msdigby23b
391
1080 AD Domesday Book 1080 AD 0 Years
Survey of England by William the Conquerer
Open Domesday
1095 AD Proslogion of Anselm 1095 AD 0 Years Logic,Ontology
Latin Library
New Link
1114 AD Sic et Non 1114 AD 0 Years Abélard
Online
Latin Source
1125 AD Chronicle of the Kings 1125 AD 0 Years Malmsebury,England,History
Online
1137 AD Geoffrey of Monmouth: Historia Britonum 1137 AD 0 Years
In English
In Latin
1139 AD The Goliardic Poets 1227 AD 88 Years music
Includes the famous ‘Carmina Burana’
Wiki
Carmina
Pages
1140 AD The Alexiad 1140 AD 0 Years crusades,Constantinople,Byzantium
Fordham Alexiad
indexed copy
1150 AD Das Nibelungenlied 1150 AD 0 Years Huns,Merovingian,Brunhilda,Germany
Text Collections
In English
1155 AD Libri Quattorum Sententiae 1155 AD 0 Years University of Paris,Notre Dame
Peter Lombard
Text and Commentary
Wiki
1187 AD Topographia Hibernica 1187 AD 0 Years
Gerald of Wales
Wiki
1265 AD Summa Theologiae 1275 AD 10 Years monasticism,Paris,University of Paris,Aquinas
Searchable Summa
1276 AD Lives of Thomas Becket 1276 AD 0 Years John of Salisbury,England,History
Compilation of contemporary biographers
purchase
1309 AD The Divine Comedy 1321 AD 12 Years Italian City States,Italy
Inferno
Purgatorio
Paradiso
Norton Trans.
1353 AD Decameron 1353 AD 0 Years Italy,Italian City States,Poetry
Giovanni Boccaccio
Volume I
Volume II
1356 AD Sir Gawain and the Green Knight 1391 AD 35 Years England,Arthur,Chivalry
pdf
1389 AD The Canterbury Tales 1389 AD 0 Years England,monasticism,Relics
eChaucer
1485 AD Le Morte d’Arthur 1485 AD 0 Years Arthur,England,Carolingian,Norman,Franks
volume I
Volume II
1509 AD The Praise of Folly 1509 AD 0 Years
Gutenberg
Latin Source
1512 AD The Prince 1512 AD 0 Years Italian City States,Italy
Machiavelli
Gutenberg
1525 AD On the Bondage of the Will 1525 AD 0 Years Luther,Germany,Predestination,Erasmus
Argument with Erasmus
Online
1651 AD Leviathan 1651 AD 0 Years State,secularism,England,thirty years war
The idea of ‘the State’ — the secular
Gutenberg
1667 AD Paradise Lost 1667 AD 0 Years Milton,Poetry,England
Original publication date
John Milton reading room
Project Gutenberg
Youtube audio
1670 AD Pensées 1670 AD 0 Years France,Pascal
Assembled notes of Blaise Pascal — trinitarian response to the ‘credo ergo sum’.

The order of their printing is controversial.

gutenberg
in French
1719 AD Robinson Crusoe 1719 AD 0 Years Defoe,England,Novel,Omni VI
among the first of the novel form.
Gutenberg
Audio (Librivox)
1776 AD Wealth of Nations 1776 AD 0 Years Economics,Money,Omni VI
Establishment of ‘Classical Economic Theory’
The medium of exchange and international trade.
Adam Smith
metalibri pdf
gurtenberg
1800 AD Origin and Principles of the American Revolution 1800 AD 0 Years German,Revolution,Age of Reason,Enlightenment
Friedrich von Gentz – Translated by John Quincy Adams
Comparison with the French revolution
Liberry Fund
New Link
1815 AD Emma 1815 AD 0 Years England,Austen
Jane Austen Novel of Manners
Gutenberg
1835 AD Democracy in America 1835 AD 0 Years France,America,Revolution,Law
Alexis de Tocqueville impressions of self governance in America and comparison to French social system. Prophetic.
Online version
Gutenberg
1850 AD The Law (Bastiat) 1850 AD 0 Years Economics,Law,France
works by Bastiat
1851 AD Moby Dick 1851 AD 0 Years Romanticism,American Literature,Novel
Melville
Gutenberg
1864 AD Notes from the Underground 1864 AD 0 Years Russia,Revolution,Novel,World Literature,Existentialism
Dostoevsky
Gutenberg
1885 AD Huckleberry Finn 1885 AD 0 Years American Literature,America,Novel,Slavery,Censorship
Mark Twain – controversial in contemporary life
Gutenberg
1886 AD Beyond Good and Evil 1886 AD 0 Years Existentialism
Seminal work of modern response to nihilism. ‘God is Dead’. Nietzsche.
Gutenberg – English
Gutenberg- German
1926 AD The Sun Also Rises 1926 AD 0 Years Novel,Modernism,Revolution,Spain,World War
Hemingway
research library
1929 AD All Quiet on the Western Front 1929 AD 0 Years France,Nihilism,Nationalism,World War,Novel,Germany
Remarque. Famous novel (and film (s))
Study Guide
1932 AD Brave New World 1932 AD 0 Years England,World Literature,Epicureanism,Modernism,Nihilism
Aldus Huxley vs. George Orwell. Bookends well with the ‘1984’ reading in Omni III.
1942 AD The Stranger 1942 AD 0 Years France,Novel,Existentialism,Nihilism,World War,World Literature
Landmark novel of the French Existential movement.
En Francais
to purchase
1962 AD One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich 1962 AD 0 Years Russia,Soviet,Modernism,Revolution
Interview
purchase
1988 AD Battle Cry of Freedom 1988 AD 0 Years America,Revolution
James Mcpherson
History of America at the time of the Civil War
amazon purchase
1990 AD I have a Dream and Letter from a Birmingham Jail 1990 AD 0 Years America,Law,Slavery
Martin Luther King Jr. – civil rights
For Purchase
1995 AD Portable Enlightenment Reader 1995 AD 0 Years Enlightenment,Age of Reason
overview and excerpts. Kant, Locke, Rousseau, Franklin et. al.
amazon preview
New Link
1997 AD Citizen Soldiers 1997 AD 0 Years History,World War,America,Modernism
Stephen Ambrose
world war II American experience
purchase amazon
New Link

 

History

“The past is the present unrolled for inspection, the present is the past gathered for action.” -Will Durant

We read historians – our history of Western Civilization in particular draws its historiography from Herodotus as the original historian.

Historians:

History of Western Civilization

We tend to think in terms of the Ancient, Medieval, and Modern periods.

That which hath been is now, and that which is to be hath already been; and God requireth that which is past.  Ecclesiastes 3:15

“The past is the present unrolled for inspection, the present is the past gathered for action.” -Will Durant

“History is the fruit and the proof of man’s freedom.” -Reinhold Niebuhr

 

History Timeline

World History Website

Histomap

Hosea

Hosea:  “The Lord Saves”

Hosea cannot bear to speak of judgement without speaking of redemption.   For this reason, we think of Hosea as the prophet with the biggest heart.

Continuing a theme detected in Amos, Hosea expounds on the ripening evil of the Kingdom of Israel, and is commanded to take a harlot as his wife, to illustrate with his life amidst his countrymen the pain of estrangement that exists between God and his people.

We encounter the three children:  Scattered, Unpitied, and Stranger.

In Chapters 1 and 2 we see fine examples of Chiasm, Chapter 3 clarifies and specifies the situation in Hosea’s immediate future.

The Chapters 4 through 10 are meditations on the events of Hosea’s day.

 

The Circumstance of Hosea’s prophecies