We see Amos working during the time of Jeroboam II in Israel. He hails from Tekoa and is a herdsman and vinedresser. It may be that he traveled as a businessman to Samaria in the north. (see verse 7:14). He becomes a nuisance to the northerners, as he prophecies at the height of prosperity (probably around 760 BC).
Note that Jonah worked for Jeroboam, and imagine his story going on in the background of this fiery work of Amos. We had surmised that Jonah’s worked happened around 763 BC in Nineveh. Might it be that the eclipse recorded in those days happened along with an earthquake, as mentioned in the beginning of this book of Amos? Fascinating to think of the signs and terror accompanying these things.
Divisions of the book:
For three transgressions and for four…
We have Amos (whose name needs ‘to be burdened’) laying burdens on 8 nations – coming to rest at last upon Israel.
Hear this Word…
Three forms of sins and judgement (therefore…) occur on into chapter 5. We end this section of three pronouncements (each bearing a different aspect of separation) with imagery concerning the coming day of the Lord.
Woe unto them…
Two forms of this predicted Woe follow
A highly evocative section begins at 5:18 concerning misguided piety.
The false security of the prosperous is condemned.
The Story of Amos and the North…
Amaziah the priest resents the words of Amos. This reminds us of the time of Ahab in 1 Kings 22, 2 Chronicles 18 and the controversy of the prophets.
From the beginning of human history toward the dissolution of the Roman Empire, the ancient period encompasses the stone age, the bronze age, and the iron age.
In Philosophy, we encounter the poetic reasoning of the eastern sages from the time of Sumer and Egypt, the proverbial wisdom of Solomon, and the dialogues of the Greeks. Aristotle can be seen to usher in the modern mindset, with its insistence on analysis. Euclid sets the pattern for western certainty, and Lucretius muses on material determinism. Cicero and Seneca frame the ethics of man’s duty to man.
Theology moves from the gods created in man’s image toward the word made flesh, only preexistent son of the preexistent God of the abyss. The God of history seeks man, the god of the pagan myths uses man or is unconcerned with him.
History is observed in ancient stele and tablets, archaeology informs our study of anthropology, and we observe the invention of written language, alphabets and grammar. Following upon the Ancient era is the Medieval era.
The founder of the ‘The Lyceum’ and tutor of Alexander the Great. Aristotle differs with his teacher Plato concerning the reality and comprehensibility of the ‘Ideal’. Radical idealism, the notion that the universal concepts of things are of greater force than the perception of the particular things themselves, is countered with a tempered view that the particulars are necessary to our knowledge of the ‘Ideal’. It may even be said that the real ideas arise from the entelechy of things themselves. (see the four causes.)
Draco, apparently reacting to outrages perpetrated by land owners against the working people and vice versa, institutes harsh laws know even to this day as ‘Draconian’.
Plutarch from Life of Solon- on Solon’s founding of new laws following the rule of Draco:
First, then, he repealed all Draco’s laws, except those concerning homicide, because they were too severe, and the punishment too great; for death was appointed for almost all offences, insomuch that those that were convicted of idleness were to die, and those that stole a cabbage or an apple to suffer even as villains that committed sacrilege or murder. So that Demades, in after time, was thought to have said very happily, that Draco’s laws were written not with ink but blood; and he himself, being once asked why be made death the punishment of most offences, replied, “Small ones deserve that, and I have no higher for the greater crimes.”
The Government of Solon
Aristotle – Part 7 of the ‘Constitution of Athens’
Next Solon drew up a constitution and enacted new laws; and the ordinances of Draco ceased to be used, with the exception of those relating to murder. The laws were inscribed on the wooden stands, and set up in the King’s Porch, and all swore to obey them; and the nine Archons made oath upon the stone, declaring that they would dedicate a golden statue if they should transgress any of them. This is the origin of the oath to that effect which they take to the present day. Solon ratified his laws for a hundred years; and the following was the fashion in which he organized the constitution. He divided the population according to property into four classes, just as it had been divided before, namely, Pentacosiomedimni, Knights, Zeugitae, and Thetes. The various magistracies, namely, the nine Archons, the Treasurers, the Commissioners for Public Contracts (Poletae), the Eleven, and Clerks (Colacretae), he assigned to the Pentacosiomedimni, the Knights, and the Zeugitae, giving offices to each class in proportion to the value of their rateable property. To who ranked among the Thetes he gave nothing but a place in the Assembly and in the juries. A man had to rank as a Pentacosiomedimnus if he made, from his own land, five hundred measures, whether liquid or solid. Those ranked as Knights who made three hundred measures, or, as some say, those who were able to maintain a horse. In support of the latter definition they adduce the name of the class, which may be supposed to be derived from this fact, and also some votive offerings of early times; for in the Acropolis there is a votive offering, a statue of Diphilus, bearing this inscription:
The son of Diphilus, Athenion hight, Raised from the Thetes and become a knight, Did to the gods this sculptured charger bring, For his promotion a thank-offering.
And a horse stands in evidence beside the man, implying that this was what was meant by belonging to the rank of Knight. At the same time it seems reasonable to suppose that this class, like the Pentacosiomedimni, was defined by the possession of an income of a certain number of measures. Those ranked as Zeugitae who made two hundred measures, liquid or solid; and the rest ranked as Thetes, and were not eligible for any office. Hence it is that even at the present day, when a candidate for any office is asked to what class he belongs, no one would think of saying that he belonged to the Thetes.
The Tyranny of the Pisitratids
Pisistratus and his sons (Hippias and Hipparchus) over numerous attempts eventually gain control of the government of Athens, reigning as autocrats after disarming the population of Athens. The Alcmeonids, an opposing family, eventually prevail upon Cleomenes, a king of Sparta, to intervene and banish the tyranny. Hippias flees to the Troad.
The Government of Cleisthenes
Aristotle – Part 21 of ‘The Constitution of Athens’
The people, therefore, had good reason to place confidence in Cleisthenes. Accordingly, now that he was the popular leader, three years after the expulsion of the tyrants, in the archonship of Isagoras, his first step was to distribute the whole population into ten tribes in place of the existing four, with the object of intermixing the members of the different tribes, and so securing that more persons might have a share in the franchise. From this arose the saying ‘Do not look at the tribes’, addressed to those who wished to scrutinize the lists of the old families. Next he made the Council to consist of five hundred members instead of four hundred, each tribe now contributing fifty, whereas formerly each had sent a hundred. The reason why he did not organize the people into twelve tribes was that he might not have to use the existing division into trittyes; for the four tribes had twelve trittyes, so that he would not have achieved his object of redistributing the population in fresh combinations. Further, he divided the country into thirty groups of demes, ten from the districts about the city, ten from the coast, and ten from the interior. These he called trittyes; and he assigned three of them by lot to each tribe, in such a way that each should have one portion in each of these three localities. All who lived in any given deme he declared fellow-demesmen, to the end that the new citizens might not be exposed by the habitual use of family names, but that men might be officially described by the names of their demes; and accordingly it is by the names of their demes that the Athenians speak of one another. He also instituted Demarchs, who had the same duties as the previously existing Naucrari,–the demes being made to take the place of the naucraries. He gave names to the demes, some from the localities to which they belonged, some from the persons who founded them, since some of the areas no longer corresponded to localities possessing names. On the other hand he allowed every one to retain his family and clan and religious rites according to ancestral custom. The names given to the tribes were the ten which the Pythia appointed out of the hundred selected national heroes.
The Rule of the 400 and the new Oligarchy (411 BC)
The Surrender to Sparta and the institution of the 30 (404BC)
Lysander and Pausanias or the Spartans require the long walls and the Piraeus to be dismantled, and a council of thirty upper class Athenians to take control. The Athenian citizens are disarmed. Kritias and Theramenes quarrel over the assassination of prominent citizens, and Theramenes is eventually executed as a threat to the thirty. Recorded by Xenophon here.
Early Bronze Age (EBA)
3300–3000: EBA I
3000–2700: EBA II
2700–2200: EBA III
2200–2100: EBA IV — Abram and Ur Middle Bronze Age (MBA) Also, Intermediate Bronze Age (IBA)
2100–2000: MBA I
2000–1750: MBA II A — First Babylonian Empire under Hammurabi
1750–1650: MBA II B
1650–1550: MBA II C Late Bronze Age (LBA)
1550–1400: LBA I — The Exodus
1400–1300: LBA II A
1300–1200: LBA II B — In Search of the Trojan War, the book of Judges
Greece may be understood as the land of the Greeks, a history that breaks from the initial migration of an indo-european people into the Mycenean and Cretan world, later into Doric, Ionic, and Attic components.
Beginning in the eighth century BC, Greece organizes around the city states. Politics coalesces around systems of Tyranny, Oligarchy, and Democracy. Ultimately, the Greek world expanded to Ionia in what is now western Turkey, Thrace and Macedonia, Thessaly, Attica and the Peloponnese. Following the war with Persia in the early fifth century, political and military power centered in Sparta and Athens. We read the history of these times primarily in Herodotus and Thucydides, also in the Lives of Plutarch.
Following the campaigns of Alexander the Great, the old Persian Empire was supplanted by the control of the Seleucids, the Antigonids, and the Ptolemies. These all devolved from the Macedonian Empire, all giving way eventually to the domination of Rome.