Category: Logic

Material Logic

Material reason provides the content for an argument or proposition, and may produce material fallacies

Sometimes referred to as ‘informal logic’, the content of terms and propositions.

According to the three activities of reason, the process of apprehension especially produces concerns of material logic.

The Ten Categories

  1. Substance
  2. Quantity
  3. Quality
  4. Relation
  5. Place
  6. Time
  7. Posture
  8. Possession
  9. Action
  10. Passion

The Five Predicables

  1. Essence
  2. Accident
  3. Genus
  4. Species
  5. Difference

The Four Causes

  • Efficient
  • Formal
  • Material
  • Final

Material Fallacies may arise by the mis-application of this art.

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Plato

Student of Socrates and Philosopher of the Form, this idealist is famous for his dialogues.  Writing in the context of late classical Greece, his Republic is a monument of Western…

Student of Socrates and Philosopher of the Form, this idealist is famous for his dialogues.  Writing in the context of late classical Greece, his Republic is a monument of Western Literature, and a demonstration of the  form of good, the focus of idealism – later called realism in the middle ages.  His successor, Aristotle, revolutionized epistemology with his ontological thinking on a wide range of topics.

Socrates, the center of Plato’s writing, engages in the dialectic, or elenchus, a predecessor of the syllogistic mode of formal logic.

Timeline of Plato and the philosophers in Athens.

Reading Guides:

Book I

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Book II

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Book III

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Book IV

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Book V

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Book VI

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Book VII

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Book VIII

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Book IX

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Proof I

Sample Proof I – Friday Week 8 A prospective particular supporting the main proposition as it exists at the moment, this supporting argument will be understood as an inductive proof…

Sample Proof I – Friday Week 8

A prospective particular supporting the main proposition as it exists at the moment, this supporting argument will be understood as an inductive proof or a deductive demonstration.   It should draw on some of the stated research plan, and elevate interest in the Hypothesis.  Reference to the research needed should be included in initial notes, here compiled as ‘end notes’ in the Chicago format.

Construct this proof using the rules of Stasis.

In Week 12 you will produce and hand in a Research Paper covering this proof.

 

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Relation

What conditions are in effect?  a fortiori What comes first?  a priori – in time or causation. What happened immediately before and after X? causation – a posteriori did _…

  • What conditions are in effect?  a fortiori
  • What comes first?  a priori – in time or causation.
  • What happened immediately before and after X? causation – a posteriori
    • did _ cause _? modus ponens/modus tollens
    • If _ is true, what cannot be true? contradiction (square of opposition)
    • Are _ and _ mutually exclusive, or can they coexist?  contrariety (square of opposition)
  • Ramification
    • What were/would be the effects if the choice is affirmative?
    • What were/would be the effects if the choice is negative
  • Final Cause
  • Efficient Cause
  • Sufficient and Necessary Cause

The laws of reason bound the possibilities of inference.

The activities of human reason:

  1. Simple Apprehension – Term
    1. sense perception – perception
    2. image – imagination
    3. abstraction – intuition
  2. Judgement – Proposition
    1. a connection of abstractions
    2. logical relationship of ideas
    3. truth or falsehood
  3. Inference – Conclusion
    1. deductive – universal
    2. inductive – particular

Formal Logic provides validity of an argument (terms, propositions and conclusions) as to their proper connection.

Propositional Logic and symbolic logic are abstractions of the relation of propositions through logical operators.

Material Logic examines the content of terms.

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The Four Causes

The four Aristotelean causes were devised as a means of explaining the world.   From this , an Aristotelean science, predecessor of all modern sciences has followed.   Final causes,…

The four Aristotelean causes were devised as a means of explaining the world.   From this , an Aristotelean science, predecessor of all modern sciences has followed.   Final causes, or the purposes of things, are not popularly used – actually being unavailable to strict induction.

See Aristotle’s writing in the Metaphysics here.

Efficient Cause

Formal Cause

Material Cause

Final Cause

 

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